NVDA tutorials learning the basics

If you are fairly new to a computer running the Windows operating system and the NVDA screen reader,
it is advisable to learn some of the basics for both programmes.  This may be learning the shortcuts for
these programmes, how to navigate them and so on. If you have been used to having some degree of eyesight and clicking with a mouse, navigating Windows using the NVDA screen reader with your keyboard alone, is a lot different to navigating with a mouse.

Training material and phone support for NVDA from the NV Access online shop

Are you aware that NV Access have put together an online Shop where you can buy training material for the NVDA screen reader?
You can also get phone support.


Please stay tuned for more training material as it becomes available.
For more information please visit the NV Access Online Shop at the following link https://www.nvaccess.org/shop/

NVDA expert certification

To find an NVDA certified expert near you, please visit the following link https://certification.nvaccess.org/. The certification page contains the official list of NVDA certified individuals from around the world, who have sat and successfully passed the NVDA expert exam.

Have you got a good grasp on the NVDA screen reader? Have you got what it takes to sit the NVDA expert exam? You can test your knowledge for free. If you pass the exam in the required time frame, then you can purchase an official certificate and be acknowledged on the above webpage under the list of worldwide NVDA experts.

Find out about NVDA progress via the nvaccess In Process blog

To find out what is happening within the NVDA project, visit “In-Process” - the new NV Access blog, where you can be informed of happenings within the organisation, staff and of course, NVDA.
http://www.nvaccess.org/category/in-process/


Click on any of the links in the table below, to visit other NVDA related webpages that may be of interest to you.

NVDA related webpages


NVDA tutorials

NVDA
screen reader



NVDA road tested
programs

NVDA tutorials
learning the basics


How to install additional
NVDA components


NVDA
Frequently
Asked Questions



NVDA addons


Accessible email client
Mozilla Thunderbird



NVDA tutorials
for Windows 10


NVDA
audio tutorials


nvaccess home of the
NVDA screen reader

NVDA user statistics

NVDA community
website


Migrating to NVDA from
another screen reader


nvaccess facebook page

nvaccess on twitter

Connect with the
NVDA Community


NVDA tutorials
for other programs

Advantages of the NVDA screen reader


Donations of any size small or big are always welcome to cover costs and help keep the project evolving.

Downloading and setting up NVDA

Requirements:
If you are downloading and setting up NVDA for the first time, you will need to ensure that your system meets the following minimum requirements. NVDA will work on all Windows platforms from Windows XP home (both the 32 bit and 64 bit versions), right up to Windows 8.1, but not the Windows RT version as of yet. This also includes Windows slates (otherwise known as tablets). Most modern computers are able to run NVDA without any problems at all and it uses around 50MB of hard disk space once installed.

Downloading:
If you haven't got a copy of the free NVDA screen reader, you can obtain a copy of it from the download section of the following website http://www.nvaccess.org Look for the latest version number when downloading to make sure you have the most up to date copy.

Setting up NVDA:
After the file has been downloaded to your computer, when you first click on the file, it will come up with a security warning. Tab to the run button and press the enter key. A talking installer will guide you through the process. The next screen that comes up will have an agreement form in it, which you can read and agree to. You can use your up arrow and down arrow keys to read this document. Tab to the check box and tick it. With a screen reader this is usually the spacebar. Tab again and then there will be 3 options. One will be to install a copy of NVDA to your computer, 2 will be to make a portable copy of NVDA to a USB stick and 3 will be to run NVDA as a temporary copy. To install a copy of NVDA to your computer choose the 1st option and follow the directions until it is fully installed. You should hear an ascending musical tune (which sounds like a piano), and then NVDA should be ready to use.

Some commonly used NVDA screen reader keys and combinations

If this is the first time you have installed a copy of NVDA, once it has been installed, you will need to know the following things. These will be: to start a copy of NVDA if it isn't running, how to get into the preferences menu where you can make changes and also how to turn off the screen reader itseIf.

If you press the windows key a menu will come up. If you then use the up arrow key it will speak the first item on that menu.  Arrow up and down, left or right to see what is there. You will need to be familiar with your tab key and the enter key for this, when installing for the first time.

NVDA modifier keys, and changing the keyboard layout

A modifier key modifies another key, so that it can perform another task. NVDA can use any, or all, of the following as its modifier keys: the Insert key, the extended Insert key or the Caps Lock key. These are also referred to as the NVDA key. To select one (or all) of the NVDA modifier keys you wish to use, press the Ctrl key, Insert key, and the Letter K. This should bring up the keyboard settings dialogue box.  Tab down to the one you would like to use as a modifier key.  Here also, if you have a desktop or laptop, you can change your settings for your particular keyboard layout under keyboard layout. Make sure you Tab down to the ok button to save your changes every time. This tutorial will only cover the desktop version.

The new show exit options when exiting NVDA

This is a new feature that has been integrated into NVDA. When the NVDA key and the letter Q have been used to quit NVDA - it will give you 3 options before NVDA is turned off. These will be to quit NVDA, restart NVDA or to disable all add-ons in NVDA. Pick the option you want (by arrowing up or down the combo box), then tab to the ok button and that action will be performed.

This feature can be turned on or off through the general settings section in NVDA...Show exit options when exiting NVDA. To show the feature each time you want to close NVDA, simply leave it checked, or just uncheck this option so this feature is not shown when you exit NVDA.

If the disable NVDA addons option is chosen, all add ons in NVDA will be disabled. To re-enable all of your add ons again, simply restart NVDA.

To listen to an audio tutorial on the show exit options when exiting NVDA, please go to https://www.dropbox.com/s/vir1a4vj9yamob0/the%20new%20show%20exit%20options%20when%20exiting%20nvda.MP3?dl=0

Starting NVDA automatically and saving configurations

If you would like NVDA to start automatically when you log onto Windows, press the Ctrl key, Insert key and the letter G at the same time. This will bring up the General settings dialogue box. Tab down to a box called "automatically start NVDA after I log onto Windows".  Once ticked, the next time you start Windows - NVDA will automatically start for you! Make sure to also tick the "save configuration on exit" box while you are in there. To tick or untick a box, simply press the spacebar. This will make sure that when you change your settings, they will be saved for you each time. The option to start automatically is only available on the installer version. To save configurations, press the Ctrl key, Insert key and the letter C.  When changing your configurations and you forget to Tab down to the OK button, you can  press the Insert key + Ctrl key + C, and this will save it for you. You should hear NVDA say configuration saved.

How do I make NVDA start at the Windows Logon screen?

Press the NVDA key + the letter N to bring up the NVDA menu. When this appears, arrow down to the preferences menu... then right arrow (to the general settings menu)... and press the Enter key (to open that section). When this next section appears... tab down (to activate the Use NVDA on the Windows logon screen checkbox) and check it with the spacebar... then tab down to the OK button and press the Enter key. Make sure you save your settings for this to take effect.

Restarting NVDA if it stops responding

NVDA has a neat little restart feature. The restart feature is only in the installer version and not present in the portable version. It is used mostly if you get into trouble (for example, if you come across buggy voices or your programme blows up). What will happen in these cases, is that NVDA will lose speech all together. In previous versions, the computer would have to be shut down and restarted. This would've been the same for most screen readers apart from voiceover used by Apple. Now, if you do come across one of these situations, press the Alt and Ctrl and the letter N and NVDA in most cases will restart without you having to restart the computer. Try pressing these key combinations all together a couple of times and see what happens.

Checking the time and date with NVDA

To check the time with NVDA, press the Insert and F12 key. To hear the day and date, press the Insert key and the F12 key twice.

Commonly used keys when using a screen reader

The main keys that are commonly used with a screen reader to do different tasks (both with NVDA and in Windows) are listed below. Please note the Ctrl and Shift keys are at the bottom left and right of the main keyboard block.
Escape key
F1 to F12 keys (usually at the top of the keyboard going from left to right).
Tab key (usually on the left hand side of a keyboard above the Caps Lock key).
Caps Lock key (used to capitalise letters, or as a modifier key with NVDA and found above the left Shift key).
Shift key (if used once will capitalise one letter or will be used with other NVDA or Windows commands).
Ctrl key (used in some Windows commands as well as shortcut keys, and found on the bottom left and right of the keyboard).
Windows key (used with some Windows shortcuts and when pressed brings up the Start menu).
Alt key (used to bring up a file menu found in most applications).
Spacebar (used to tick and untick boxes, and put spaces between words etc).
Insert key (which can be used as a modifier key for NVDA, or to insert text into a document).
Delete key (used to delete out items).
Home and End keys (used with Ctrl to get you to the top of the page, and also to the bottom of the page).
Left, Right, Up and Down arrow keys (used to move you around Windows and other applications).
Numeric keypad (used with the NVDA key to do different tasks).

Arrow keys

Use your left, right, up and down arrow keys to navigate your computer. Using your arrow keys on the desktop will let you go to the icon/shortcut in whichever direction key you press. These icon/shortcuts will be spoken out to you while NVDA is running. This will be the same for menus, characters in a document and so on.

Enter key

When the enter key is pushed (for example when on the internet), it will confirm that action. For example if pushed while on a link it may take you to another page or website, or you can press Enter on a button to confirm an action.

The Windows Application key

This key is used quite often with the NVDA screen reader for a variety of tasks. The application key is located between the Alt and Ctrl keys to the right of your Space Bar. It has an image of a mouse pointer on a menu. Pressing this key will display the selected item's shortcut window. This is the same menu that is displayed by right-clicking. Depending on the program that you are in, you may get a variety of options appearing in the menu. For example, if you are in a word processing document you may hear "app pane menu" with options such as cut, copy, paste, etcetera; however if you are on the desktop you may hear "app context menu" with options such as view, sort by, refresh and so on. Another example is that within a word processing document if not clicked on a word then you might hear the word formatting menu, compared to selecting a misspelt word you might hear the spell checker menu instead.

Combo boxes

When you are surfing the net and come across a combo box, you will hear it being spoken out (for example combo box). To open the combo box (where you can make a selection from the list when focused on it) press the Alt key and the down arrow key.  This will open the combo box. Use your up and down arrow keys to make a selection. Use the Alt key and the up arrow key to close the combo box.
To focus on the combo box with NVDA, you can press the spacebar key to do this, or use the Insert key and the spacebar combination to toggle it between browse mode and focus mode (so that NVDA can focus on the combo box). To quickly jump to a combo box on a web page (if there are any), press the letter C while in browse mode.  This will take you to the first combo box on that page. If a combo box is collapsed, you should hear this spoken also.

Check boxes

When you come across check boxes on a web page, these can be checked and unchecked with the spacebar. You should hear whether a check box is checked or unchecked when focused on it. Press the space bar and you will hear it being spoken out (it will say checked or unchecked). Press the spacebar to check (and again to uncheck) the check box while focussed on the check box itself. Some forms on the internet will have multiple check boxes on them. You are able to check more than one check box if there are multiple choices you are looking for (for example the Lord of the Rings series which can be books, DVD's, videos etcetera). These may be found in a catalogue online search form that a library may use.

Buttons

When you come across a button on a web page, to activate the button, press the Enter key or the spacebar. To quickly jump to a button on a web page, (while in browse mode) press the letter B. This will take you to the first button on that web page.

Links on a web page

To activate any link on a web page simply press the Enter key.  This will either jump you down the page to a certain area, take you to another webpage on the website, or take you to another website altogether. Pressing the letter K for links in NVDA will jump you from one link to the next. This would be useful in a list box.

Radio buttons
When you come across these on a web page, (usually found in a multiple choice selection) press the space bar to select your choice. You can only have one choice highlighted at a time. Pressing the spacebar will not unhighlight the radio button. You must pick another radio button to do this. For example, changing the radio button selection from Mrs to Miss. These can also be found on banking websites (in your account section) and on other websites that require you to make a selection. These will be spoken out as well. They will say radio button checked or unchecked.

Browse mode in NVDA

When you are in browse mode in NVDA, this is where you can use single letter navigation keys to move quickly around a website. For example H for headings, L for lists and so on. For more information on browse mode, please see the user manual and read the section about browse mode. Please also see the section in the user manual called single letter navigation for a full list of the keys that can be used while surfing the internet.

Focus mode

When you come across an edit area in a web page, this is where you are able to type your information.
You must be in focus mode otherwise you could be bounced away from that area. In other words you could still be in the browse mode selection which is usually used for quick navigation of a website.  For example when you are using the single letter navigation keys that are provided in NVDA.

To toggle between these 2 modes, press the Insert key and the spacebar. You will hear 2 different sounds, (or the words focus mode and browse mode be spoken out). If you would rather hear the words focus mode and browse mode be spoken out you need to do the following...

Depending on whether or not you are in focus mode (where you can type into an edit area), you will need to go into the browse mode settings within NVDA. To bring up the browse mode settings menu, press the Insert key + the Ctrl key + the letter B. When the menu appears, tab down to the check box (which refers to audio indication of focus and browse mode) and untick it. This will change it from the sounds you hear when going in to and out of these 2 modes so that you can hear the words focus mode and browse mode being spoken out to you. This makes it a lot easier to know which mode you are in.

To have NVDA go automatically between these 2 modes (say when filling out a form), back in the browse mode settings part of NVDA, make sure the 2 boxes above audio indication of browse mode and focus mode are ticked. This should make it a lot easier to go between the 2 modes when arrowing down a form on a webpage. NVDA will automatically toggle between these 2 modes when you are filling out a form. For example, focus mode where you are able to type and browse mode where the single letter navigation keys can be used.

Tables

Tables are used to display information. These can be found on webpages and in documents. They can come in various sizes, for example 4 columns and 2 rows. In a table, where there are columns and rows, columns will go up and down a table, and rows will go from left to right.

Tables will usually consist of text and at times will have links in them as well. They may also have headers. For example Bus departs New Plymouth and arrives at .... When a screen reader user comes across a table, the screen reader will read from the top left of the table to the top right of the table (that is across a row). When it has come to the end of that row, it will go back to the first column but this time it will be in the second row and go from left of the second row to the right of that second row. For the example that was used above for a table, it would read the 4 columns first which is the first row, then go to the second row underneath the first row.

With a screen reader the person can simply arrow down the table to get the information that is presented there. If there are links in that same table they can also use the tab key or the letter K to jump from link to link. Please see single letter navigation in the user manual for quick navigation keys that can be used on the internet. Depending on how the table is laid out, they can use the following keys to navigate that same table.

Quick navigating of tables

When within a table, use the following to navigate quickly:

Ctrl+Alt+left arrow
Moves the system caret to the previous column (staying in the same row)

Ctrl+Alt+right arrow
Moves the system caret to the next column (staying in the same row)

Ctrl+Alt+up arrow
Moves the system caret to the previous row (staying in the same column)

Ctrl+Alt+down arrow
Move to next row

Announcement of headers and cell co-ordinates in tables

To hear table row/column header information or table cell co-ordinates when navigating a table, press the Ctrl key, the Insert key and the letter D at the same time. This will bring up the document formatting dialogue.  Tab down to the 2 boxes that say table row/column headers and table cell co-ordinates and tick them both.  Next time you go into a table, these will be spoken. (For example it might read out the name of the header, or it may say row 1, column 1).

Tree view

When you go into some applications in certain parts of that programme you may hear the words tree view being spoken out. For example, the input gestures menu in NVDA. While in the tree view mode, you can use the up and down arrow keys to navigate the tree from top to bottom.

As you arrow down or up the tree you will hear different branches being spoken out to you. For example braille collapsed, browse mode collapsed, configuration collapsed and so on until you hit the bottom of the tree.  Any of the branches which are collapsed when you arrow to them, can simply be opened with the right arrow key. To collapse that same branch simply use the left arrow key.

You will hear the word expanded.  This means the branch is open. When that branch has been expanded, you will hear the words seven items being spoken out.  This means there are seven items on that branch that you can interact with. Use your arrow keys to navigate the branch. In some cases the tab key will be needed to tab you into the place where you can make changes or read information on that topic (for example help files).

This will vary from application to application (that is which steps you may have to undertake).

Tab key and the Shift/tab key

In some applications (or forms on the internet), pressing the tab key will take you from one field to the next. For example, in an application form to join a club; when the tab key is pushed, it will take you from the first name field to the surname field. If you keep on tabbing, it will take you further down the form to other fields. If the shift key is used together along with the tab key, this will take you back up through the fields, you have just tabbed down from.

The same idea will work in applications that allow you to tab from field to field, such as dialogue boxes and so on.

Tabs

In an application these are usually found in the settings part of a programme. When you go into the settings of a programme the tabs are usually at the top of that page. In most cases they will go from the left part of that screen to the right of that screen.
Each tab will have its own section. For example in Mozilla Firefox, they are called General, Tabs, Content, Applications and so on.

Use the left and right arrow keys to go from one tab to another once found.  If you want to look down one of those sections mentioned above simply just use the tab key and it will move you through the sections in that dialogue.

Working with a Window

There are two types of windows within the system: Application and Document. An application window is the window containing the
actual program you are currently working with (e.g., Excel, Word) - which may consist of one or more document windows. A document window is a sub-window of an application and contains the current file you are working on. For example, when working with a word processing application, you may have two or more different documents open simultaneously - each in its own window. Application windows also contain a menu while document windows do not. In addition, document windows cannot be placed outside of
their respective application window. To work with Windows, you should be able to control an individual window and know the various parts. Most windows allow you to change their size and position.

Each window can be one of three sizes:
1. Minimized - This temporarily puts aside the current window and includes it in the Task Bar (located at the bottom of the desktop).
The program has not been cancelled but merely set aside. You can return to where you left off by switching to it using Alt Tab.
2. Maximized The current window is enlarged to take up the full screen. The window cannot be moved or resized while maximized.
This gives you "maximum" working area and is useful when working within applications, such as word processors.
3. Restored - This is the size of a window before being either maximized or minimized. This is the only time that the size of a window can be changed.

Sliders in programmes

NVDA can interact with most sliders in programmes if the author has made the slider accessible to the screen reader. To interact with a slider the left and right arrow keys are usually used. In some cases it may be the up or down arrow keys as well. When you arrow to the left or right (the information - for example the percentage 0 to 100 - should be read out to you). You should also hear the word slider being spoken, along with a pecentage of where it is on the slider. If you press the Ctrl key + the Insert key + the letter V this will bring up the voice settings menu in NVDA. Tab down until you hear the word rate. Use the left and right arrow keys to adjust the speed you want NVDA to speak. Next tab down to ok.

Another place where you can practice on the sliders is in the speakers section in windows. Tab around the desktop until you hear notification chevron button. Locate your speakers with the arrow keys and once found press the Enter key. This will bring up the speakers section. NVDA should automatically land you on a slider where you are able to lower and higher the volume.

Split buttons

These are found in various programmes throughout Windows. These will give you more than one option. Your left, right, up and down arrow keys can be used on these split buttons. You will hear these split buttons being spoken out. For an example of a split button in Windows 7, press the Windows key and the Windows start menu will come up. NVDA will end up in the search box. Use the left arrow key until you hear shut down being spoken out to you. In this case, you will hear the words shut down split button sub menu being spoken out. If you then arrow to the right, you will hear the word hibernate being spoken out. This is now on a sub menu. You can use
the up and down arrow keys to give you other options. For example sleep, restart, lock this computer, switch user and so on.

Pressing the Enter key on the shut down split button will shut down the computer for you. If this is done on any of the others, it will perform another function depending on which one you choose. When you come across a split button, these will be spoken out to you by NVDA in whatever programme they may be present in.

What is an operating system?

An operating system manages the computer's memory, processes, and all of its software and hardware. It also allows you to communicate with the computer without knowing how to speak the computer's language. Without an operating system, a computer cannot operate. Your computer's operating system (OS) coordinates many different computer programs that may be running at the same time. They all need to access your computer's central processing unit (CPU), memory, and storage. The operating system ensures that these all work efficiently together. For example, if you wish to print out a document, your operating system will allow you to enter text in a word processing program using a keyboard (displaying it on the monitor at the same time), save that text to wherever you may save it on your computer, then tell your printer to print it once you click on print. Basically, the operating system helps all the devices and software communicate with each other.

Examples of operating systems

Operating systems usually come preloaded on any computer you buy. Most people use the operating system that comes with their computer, but it is possible to upgrade or even change operating systems.  The three most common operating systems for personal computers are Microsoft Windows, Apple Mac OS X, and Linux. Operating systems can also be found on modern mobile phones (such as smart phones).

What is a peripheral?

A peripheral is a "device that is used to put information into or get information out of the computer".
There are three different types of peripherals:
Input, used to interact with, or send data to the computer (mouse, keyboards, etcetera.)
Output, which provides output to the user from the computer (monitors, printers, etcetera.)
Storage, which stores data processed by the computer (hard drives, flash drives, etcetera.)

What is the difference between an input and output device?

An input device sends information to a computer system for processing, and an output device reproduces or displays the results of that processing. Depending on the interaction, a device can be both; referred to as an input/output or I/O device.

An input device, such as a computer keyboard or mouse, can send information to the computer (input), but it cannot receive or reproduce information, therefore it is an input only device.

An output device, such as computer speakers can receive information from the computer (output) therefore it is an output only device.

Some devices are both input and output. Devices such as a CD-RW, USB flash drive or printer/scanner can be considered both as they can both send information to a computer (input), and receive information from a computer (output). Another example of a device that is both input and output is a touch screen monitor as you can both see text on it (output) and touch the screen to give it instructions (input).

EXERCISE:Consider the devices attached to your computer, and assess whether they are input devices, output devices or both.

What is the difference between computer hardware and computer software?

Hardware on a computer is something you can physically touch with your hand. This would include your computer tower and peripherals that are plugged into that computer; for example printers, scanners, a mouse, your modem and so on.
Software is something that is not able to be touched with your hand. Programs such as Microsoft Word (a word processing program), Mozilla Thunderbird (an email client) and Mozilla Firefox (a web browser) are considered software. These are a set of instructions that someone has written in code, and the end result becomes a program. Even though you can interact with the program (using hardware such as a keyboard or mouse), the actual program itself which follows these instructions is still classified as software as you cannot physically touch it. Another example of software is a driver. A driver is an instruction that is specific to your device and your operating system (so that it knows how to interact with it). For example, a driver that you need for your printer and operating system, may be different to a friends driver for their printer and their operating system. A driver helps your operating system talk to your device. Without the correct driver your device may not operate.

What is a program?

A program is software that performs a specific task.

Microsoft Word for example is a word processing program that allows users to process words in order to create and write documents; and Mozilla Firefox is a browser that allows you to browse the internet. Without programs, a computer would still work with the operating system, but you would be extremely limited in terms of what you could do. If you only had an operating system and no browser, then even with a modem attached you would still not be able to surf the internet. Programs give the user extra functionality (such as being able to play a DVD on your computer using VLC media player, being able to edit photos in Picasa or play music in Winamp). There are a variety of programs that you can install onto your computer to do a variety of tasks, just like there are a variety of applications (also known as apps) that you can install onto your phone to do a variety of tasks also!

To see what is in an active window

To see what is in an active window (such as the desktop), press the Insert key and the letter B. This will read out what is on the desktop, or in other applications.  This is also useful for dialog boxes. Press the Ctrl key to stop the speech.

Navigating around your computer with NVDA

Now we have NVDA up and running on your computer, you will hear it talking.  In most cases with a screen reader, to navigate around the computer and move around the screen, you will use your tab key, shift tab, arrow keys and your enter key on your keyboard. Try navigating your computer with the screen reader enabled.  As you navigate around the computer you can use your arrow keys.  To go into any of the menus from the start menu, press the enter key.  To navigate any of the menus use the up, down, left and right arrow keys on your keyboard. Other keys may be used like the Alt key within a programme (to get into the menus) along with other keys to do different tasks. (For example in Notepad, you can press Alt and it will bring up the file menu up the top. You can arrow up and down to see what options are on that first menu, or arrow right and left to see what options are on menus to the left and right of it). You will hear NVDA talk as you navigate the different menus.

If you would like to know quickly what some of the other keys do (with the modifier key - which is the insert key), press the insert and the number 1 key on the main keyboard. (This is not the number one on the numeric keypad, but the one above the letter q). This will turn on the Input help mode, where you can practise some of the combination keys available.  Here, you can try different keys along with the Insert key to see what that function does. If there is no key assigned to that key, it will not say anything.
Try using the Insert key while pressing another to see what that key may do.  This can be on the main keyboard, the F1 to F12 keys plus the numeric keyboard as well. Once you have learned some of the functions, press the Insert key and the number 1 key to turn the input help mode off again.  Using this feature will help you to learn the functions assigned to those keys quite quickly.

Focussing NVDA and locating other programmes on Windows startup

When Windows starts, NVDA may either end up on the desktop, down on the taskbar, or in the case of Windows 7, the Start Menu. If you would like to start from the Start menu, the best way to get focus with NVDA (once it is loaded) is to press the windows key, then press the escape key to hide it again.  This will give you a starting point.  From here, if you want to navigate to the desktop, press the Tab key a couple of times until you get to the desktop.  If you use Shift plus Tab it will do it in reverse.  As you Tab or Shift Tab, you will hear different parts of the desktop (for example start menu, desktop, running applications etc). If you wish to go to a programme on your start menu, use the up and down, left and right arrow keys to go to the programme you want and press enter to go into it. Alt and F4 will get you back out of a programme. Familiarise yourself with the different parts of the desktop and where things are. The start button is usually on the bottom left and the clock is usually down on the bottom right of the taskbar. The desktop itself is where all your different icons are (for example My Computer, Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox etc). Icons located across the taskbar may be different depending on which programmes you have on your computer.

Navigating to and from the Desktop and notification area

To get quickly to the main desktop, press the Windows key and the letter D to take you straight to this area.  Doing this again will take you back to the start menu.  This is a Windows shortcut key.  If you want to jump back to the desktop again do the same combination again, and you should end up back on the desktop. To quickly jump down to the notification area (which is next to the clock on the bottom right hand side), press the Windows key and the letter B to get you there.  This is also a Windows command.  While you are in this area, you can use your arrow keys to see which programmes might be loaded at that time.  To get back to the desktop, press the Windows key and the letter D again.

Making changes on the taskbar in Windows

When NVDA is focused on the start button, press the Insert key along with the divide key on the numeric keypad to route the mouse to the start button. Once this has been done, you will need to right click the mouse. Use the multiply key on the numeric keypad to perform this action. Next, arrow down to properties, then press the Enter key. The next screen that comes up will let you make changes to the taskbar, the start menu and the toolbars sections in those programmes. The 3 tabs mentioned above will be spoken when you are on them. You can use the left and right arrow keys while on the tab to go to the tab next to it. For example, from the Taskbar tab to the Start Menu tab, or from the Start Menu tab to the Toolbars tab. When you have located a section you want to make changes to, (for example the Taskbar tab) it is a matter of pressing the tab key to go through the list of options for each section. For example, you can select whether to lock or auto-hide the task bar, or choose where to have your taskbar (bottom, left, right or top of the screen).

Searching for a file or programme on a computer (running Windows 7)

One of the most useful features is the search dialogue box. It helps you find files, folders or programmes quickly on your computer.

To use this search feature in Windows seven, press the Windows key and the start menu will come up by default. In the search box, you can usually type up the first few letters (or maybe the first word) of what you are looking for on the computer. It will then do a search for the file, folder or programme you are looking for. (For example, if you typed the word "word" into the search box, it would come up with the wordpad programme). If only a couple of letters were typed into the search box, then it may give a lot more results. (For example, if "sys" was typed into the search box, it would come up with the following results: System information, create a system repair disk, system configuration and so on). Arrow up or down to the one you want and press the Enter key. This will take you into the programme you choose. If there are no results that you are after (when it shows its results), simply press the Escape key twice and those results will disappear. It will then take you back to the start button.

To listen to the audio tutorial please go to https://www.dropbox.com/s/zyan9f9z2b77fzj/searching%20for%20a%20file%20or%20programme%20on%20your%20computer.MP3?dl=0

EXERCISE using the search function
Try the following: In the search edit box try typing a letter or word and see what results you are given. Repeat the process if you do not find what you are looking for (for example in case you have misspelt a word). Once you have found what you are looking for press Enter.

Locating a programme on your Desktop quickly, and then closing it

On your desktop, you may have a lot of icons.  Usually  these icons or shortcuts will take you into a programme that is located on your hard drive. You can press the letter an icon begins with to go quickly to that programme. On most desktops, there will be an icon called Internet Explorer.  This is usually on the main part of the desktop.  If there are say 20 icons on your desktop, and you wanted to get to Internet Explorer quickly, you could press the letter I until you get to it.  If there is more than one item on the desktop starting with the letter I, then it will cycle between them. If there is no programme starting with the letter I, it will not do anything. Try some other letters to see what other programmes are there.  The other way, is to use your arrow keys to find the different icons that are there.  This is a much slower process.  If you would like to go into any of the programmes, locate the icon or shortcut to the programme you are after, then press the enter key to open it up.  In this case, we will use Internet Explorer.  The programme will be opened for you to view what is on the inside and use.  There will usually be a menu, right up the very top going from left to right.  Above the menu will be a title bar which will say the name of the application (for example Internet Explorer). This will obviously change with each application or webpage that you open. Usually, on the left hand side (in most programmes) there will be a file menu, across to the right are a variety of other menus, and on the far right there is usually a help menu.  In Internet Explorer, below this will be navigation buttons, along with a location bar (where you can type a web address), with other various icons to the left and right of the location bar. Below this will be the main window where you browse the internet.  This means whatever webpage you are looking at, will come up in this area. To close Internet Explorer you can press the Alt key to bring up the file menu, then arrow down to the one that says exit, then press enter to close the programme.  Another far quicker way, is to use the Alt and F4 keys simultaneously to close the programme.  Most mouse users will just click the X on the top right of the browser to close the programme.

Shortcuts

In some cases you may want a shortcut on your desktop, so that it is a lot quicker to find the program you wish to use. It will generally have a shortcut under the programs menu that you would navigate to, to use that program. (For example you may find a shortcut to Internet Explorer or Computer). This shortcut will need to be sent to the desktop.

How to send a shortcut to your desktop

A shortcut may be located under the programs menu which lists all of the programs on your computer. To send the shortcut you want to the desktop, you will need to locate it first. For example Computer. Next, press the Shift key and the F10 key together while on the shortcut. A context menu will come up. When this appears, arrow down to the Send to menu. When the sub menu appears, arrow down to the menu called Desktop and press the Enter key. This will put the shortcut on your Desktop, so it is a lot easier to find now.

Assigning a shortcut key (also referred to as a hot key) to your shortcut

In some cases, you may want to start a program with a shortcut key. This means, instead of navigating to the desktop (where your shortcut is), and pressing the Enter key on it (to activate it), you can assign a shortcut key to start that program quickly. For example, you could assign a shortcut key to either Mozilla Thunderbird or Mozilla Firefox. Navigate to the shortcut you want to add a shortcut key to. If your keyboard has an application key (also known as the context menu key) press this key. A context menu will appear. Arrow up or down until you get to a menu called Properties, then press the Enter key. The next screen that comes up will allow you to assign a shortcut key to that shortcut if it hasn't been taken already. Tab down until you hear shortcut key. If one has already been assigned, it will tell you what it is. For example Alt, Ctrl and the letter it has been assigned. If it says there is none, you can assign a shortcut key to it. For example, for Mozilla Thunderbird, you could assign Alt + Ctrl + the letter T for Thunderbird. Next, tab down to the apply button, then tab to the OK button and press the Enter key. This new shortcut key should now be assigned to that shortcut. If for some reason your newly assigned shortcut key doesn't work, it may be because another shortcut key is assigned to it,  or you didn't apply your settings.

What to expect under the shortcut properties section

Also under the shortcut section, it will tell you where the shortcut is pointing to on your computer. For example target will be "C:\Program Files (x86)\Mozilla Thunderbird\thunderbird.exe"
Start in... "C:\Program Files (x86)\Mozilla Thunderbird"
Shortcut key... None (this is where you can assign a shortcut key combination that you will remember)
Run... which can be changed to minimized, normal window, or maximized if you want the page to be full screen.
Comment... this is where you can add one. (For example for Mozilla Thunderbird it might be "to send and receive emails").
Open file location... this will take you straight to the Mozilla Thunderbird folder on your computer.
Change icon... this will let you change your current icon to another one.
Advanced... when you go to this, it will let you Run as administrator on that shortcut. This option allows you to run this shortcut as an administrator, while protecting your computer from unauthorized activity.

Tabbing will take you through the different sections. Using the Shift / Tab key will take you back through the shortcut section. Check out the different sections under the tabs section.
If any changes are made, make sure they are applied.

To create a shortcut to a file or folder

If you would like to, you can point a shortcut to a file or folder on your computer. This may be in the case of a folder you access a lot, or a file to start a program like NVDA.  If you would like it to come from the Desktop, make sure no other shortcuts are selected. If they are, use the Ctrl key + the spacebar to unselect them.

Next, either use the Shift key + the F10 key (or the application key - also known as the context key) to bring up the context menu. Then, arrow down to the new menu; once the sub menu comes up, arrow to the shortcut menu and press the Enter key. When the next screen comes up, tab until you hear the word browse. This is a button, so you will need to press the Spacebar or Enter key on this button.

This will land you in a tree view. You will need to use your arrow keys to navigate to the section you want. For example, if I had a folder on my C:\ drive called NVDA, I would have to navigate the tree until I got to this folder. For example Computer... C:\ ... nvda... nvda.exe (which is the file I want my shortcut to point to), then press the Enter key. Tab to the ok button and this file will be selected. You will hear (under the "Type the location of the item" section, where the shortcut is pointing to. For example C:\nvda\nvda.exe. Tab to the next button and press the Enter key.  It will ask you to give it a name. Backspace the name it gave it, and assign it a name. For example, NVDA 2014.4; then press the Enter key and that shortcut will be made for you now.

If you would rather the shortcut point to a folder when doing this, stop on the folder name on the tree. For example C:\nvda. Then, tab to the ok button and follow the directions as mentioned above to give it a name. Now when you press the Enter key on that shortcut, whatever it may be named, it will take you straight to that folder (if you have it going to the NVDA folder). If it is pointing to the nvda.exe file, then it will start the program.

How to create a folder on the Desktop

There may be times when you want to create a folder on the Desktop. This could be to store documents in, or files that you have downloaded from the internet. To create a folder on the Desktop, you will need to navigate to it first. Make sure no shortcut is selected. If (when you navigate to the desktop) it says that there are no shortcuts selected, you can go on to the next step. If a shortcut is selected, you will need to unselect it first.  Use the Ctrl key + the spacebar to unselect the shortcut. Doing this again will select the shortcut.

Once it has been unselected on the desktop, either use the Shift key + the F10 key (or the applications key - also known as the context key) to bring up the context menu. Next, arrow down to New menu; then a submenu will come up. Locate the folder menu, then press the Enter key. This will make a folder called  new folder. While it is still highlighted, press the backspace key to clear the current text, then give it a name. For example my music. Press the Enter key and that folder will be created.

If you would like to create other folders within that folder, you must go inside the folder to do this. Make sure when you are creating new folders no other folders are selected. Just repeat the process again as mentioned above to create  new folders within the my music folder.  If a folder is selected when you create a new folder then this will be inside of that folder. 
If the file menu is available, this can also be done using the file menu. For example, press the Alt key until the file menu comes up, then arrow down to New. Once the submenu comes up, arrow to the folder menu, then press the Enter key. While it is still highlighted, backspace it (so it doesn't say new folder) and give it a name. Press the Enter key, and the new folder will be created.
To rename a folder or a shortcut at any time when selected, use the F2 key. Backspace the name of the shortcut or folder and give it a name. Press the Enter key and that will then be the new name for that item.

Accessibility options to consider for computer users with low vision

Below are some basic tips on how to configure a computer to make it more accessible for users with low vision. These tips include such information as how to change the display colors and increase the size of the on-screen text in Windows, Internet Explorer, and Mozilla Firefox. These tips may or may not work depending on your eyesight condition and the amount of vision you have left. There may come a point where you need more magnification (than what Windows can provide), or even a screen reader should your sight deteriorate even more. Each persons needs will be different and these tips are designed to assist during the transition period of your eyesight condition.

Enhancing accessibility via the Ease of Access Center

Windows Vista and Windows 7 both have a feature called the Ease of Access Center, which replaces and improves the Accessibility Tools found in earlier versions of Windows. Follow these steps to open the Ease of Access Center: Press the Windows start key.  In the "search programs and files" edit box, type in "Control Panel" and press Enter. Once you are in the control panel, open the Ease of Access Center. (This may also be accessed by pressing the start key...go to all programs... then accessories...then Ease of Access center) Once the Center opens, you can activate accessibility tools such as Magnifier, On Screen keyboard, Narrator, and set up high contrast. You can change the fonts and colors used by Windows.

Select "Get recommendations to make your computer easier to use." This will bring up a wizard that will ask you a series of questions and automatically change the text size and color settings based on your answers.

In all versions of Windows, the changes made to the text size using the above steps will affect text created by Windows, which includes the Start menu, Desktop, Documents, Computer, and the top title bar for all programs. It will not affect the size of text in webpages, Word documents, or most other programs. The changes to the colour scheme however, will carry over to web browsers and Microsoft Office. Some programs may have their own colour preferences that will override these settings.

Improving the Accessibility of Web Browsers

There are ways to make sure that nearly every webpage uses high-contrast colors and larger text. To do so, follow the steps below for your preferred web browser:

Accessibility options in Internet Explorer

Go to: Tools...Internet Options... (A new window should open up). In this new window, choose "Accessibility".  Check the boxes labeled "Ignore font styles specified on Web pages" and "Ignore font sizes specified on Web pages." Select "OK" in the dialog box and again in the Internet Options dialog box. This will return you to the page you were viewing.

Now, whenever you want to increase or decrease the size of the text on a webpage, go to: View...text size...(and select the text size which suits you best).

Accessibility options in Mozilla Firefox

 Go to: Tools...Options.  (A new window should open up). Choose the "Content" tab.  Choose a font (a good clear, easy to see font such as Arial is recommended), and the size of text you prefer. (Size 14 to 18 may suit most low vision users). Try it out to find out which font and size best suits you.  Locate the "Advanced" button. In this new dialog box, make sure the box for "Allow pages to choose their own fonts" is unchecked. Select "OK."

Now, you should be back in the "Content" options tab for Firefox. Below the "Advanced" button there is a button labeled "Colours". Here you can adjust the font and background colours used by Firefox. In the Colours window, choose the colours that you would prefer, and make sure that the box for "Allow pages to choose their own colours" is unchecked. Select "OK" to return to the webpage you were viewing.
The pages should now be using the fonts and colours you specified. You can increase the size of text on screen any time by hitting Ctrl +, or by going into View and selecting Zoom. Alternatively, Ctrl - should decrease the size.

Checking to see if your programme is maximised

While in your browser, if you want to check to see if it is fully maximized, press the Alt key and the spacebar to bring up a menu.  This should give you some options to maximize your programme, minimize your programme or close it.  It also gives you the option to restore it. If these options are greyed out or unavailable you will not be able to select them. Sometimes, when you open a programme, it is not fully maximized. Just arrow up to maximize and press enter and it should do it for you. If this is not an option, then you will not be able to do it (for example if it was already maximized, but you were not sure whether it was or not and attempted to maximize it). We will come back to the browser later on in the tutorial.

Learning shortcut combination keys within programmes

When navigating the various Internet Explorer menus (using Alt to open the file menu, and the arrow keys to navigate the menus), you may hear of shortcut keys that can be used to open parts of a programme quickly.  These keys can usually be used in other programmes if supported. To print for example, press Ctrl and the letter P, and it should bring up the print menu in Internet Explorer. To become familiar with some of these shortcut key combinations, listen to some of these by arrowing up and down on the menus.

Commonly used Windows shortcut keys

The quickest way to learn how to navigate your computer is to learn the Windows shortcut keys. These may vary from operating system to operating system, but the basics are generally the same. Once you know your shortcut keys, you will find navigating much quicker than using a mouse! Some shortcut combinations (such as copy and paste) go across programmes and operating systems. Learning these shortcut keys is invaluable for screen reader users. Some of the more common ones for Windows can be found below:

CTRL+C Copy.
CTRL+X Cut.
CTRL+V Paste.
CTRL+Z Undo.
DELETE Delete.
SHIFT+DELETE Delete selected item permanently without placing the item in the Recycle Bin.
CTRL while dragging an item Copy selected item.
CTRL+SHIFT while dragging an item Create shortcut to selected item.
F2 Rename selected item.
CTRL+RIGHT ARROW Move the insertion point to the beginning of the next word.
CTRL+LEFT ARROW Move the insertion point to the beginning of the previous word.
CTRL+DOWN ARROW Move the insertion point to the beginning of the next paragraph.
CTRL+UP ARROW Move the insertion point to the beginning of the previous paragraph.
CTRL+SHIFT with any of the arrow keys Highlight a block of text.
SHIFT with any of the arrow keys Select more than one item in a window or on the desktop, or select text within a document.
CTRL+A Select all.
F3 Search for a file or folder.
ALT+ENTER View properties for the selected item.
ALT+F4 Close the active item, or quit the active program.
ALT+Enter Displays the properties of the selected object.
ALT+SPACEBAR Opens the shortcut menu for the active window.
CTRL+F4 Close the active document in programs that allow you to have multiple documents open simultaneously.
ALT+TAB Switch between open items.
ALT+ESC Cycle through items in the order they were opened.
F6 Cycle through screen elements in a window or on the desktop.
F4 Display the Address bar list in My Computer or Windows Explorer.
SHIFT+F10 Display the shortcut menu for the selected item.
ALT+SPACEBAR Display the System menu for the active window.
CTRL+ESC Display the Start menu.
ALT+Underlined letter in a menu name Display the corresponding menu. Underlined letter in a command name on an open menu Carry out the corresponding command.
F10 Activate the menu bar in the active program.
RIGHT ARROW Open the next menu to the right, or open a submenu.
LEFT ARROW Open the next menu to the left, or close a submenu.
F5 Refresh the active window.
BACKSPACE View the folder one level up in My Computer or Windows Explorer.
ESC Cancel the current task.
SHIFT when you insert a CD into the CD-ROM drive Prevent the CD from automatically playing.

For a full list of Windows 7, Windows 8 and Windows 10 keyboard shortcuts please click on the following link https://www.dropbox.com/s/dbfd4ccmew4xj99/Keyboard%20shortcuts%20for%20Windows%207%20and%20Windows%208.zip?dl=0

Some other shortcuts that you may find useful covering a variety of programmes such as Internet Explorer versions 9,10 and 11; Excel, Outlook, Powerpoint and Word (versions 2010 and 2013), Outlook.com, as well as Windows 7, Windows 8 and Windows 10 keyboard shortcuts can be found at https://www.dropbox.com/s/r0hc0ejv9whgsgs/Useful%20shortcuts.zip?dl=0

Exercise using shortcut key combinations

Use some of the shortcut keys listed above to discover what functions they provide in certain programmes and operating systems. Type something up in Notepad, and then try copying and pasting it.

How to find more information on different topics for Windows

To quickly find all of the shortcuts that are commonly used for your Windows operating system, please follow the instructions below.

While on the desktop, press the F1 key.  This will bring up a new screen called Windows Help and Support where you can do a search for the shortcuts.  In the search area, type shortcuts, then press the enter key. This will bring up a results screen. Find the results you are after (for example keyboard shortcuts), then press enter.  Here it will bring up a list of keyboard shortcuts for you to learn.  You could always copy and paste the results into a word processing programme to be looked at and learnt at a later date. To close the screen, use the Alt and F4 keys. Windows shortcut keys are well worth learning as they allow you to navigate and perform functions quickly.

Make sure there is no other programme open, as it may open up the help section for that programme. For example, if you have your word processing programme open and then press F1, the help for the word processing programme will open up as opposed to the Windows help.

For any programme that has a help menu, pressing the F1 key will bring up the help topics for that programme. For example, by pressing F1 in Word, or by searching under the help menu in Word, you may be able to discover how to change fonts.

Also, to discover the version number of a programme that you are using, look under the help... about section to see which version of that software that you have.

Typing and reviewing a document in Notepad

As you type up a document, you may choose to hear it spoken letter by letter, word by word, or both.  Command keys can also be turned on or off (so you know which command keys you have pressed).

Insert and the number 2 will turn speak typed characters on and off.
Insert and the number 3 will turn speak typed words on and off.
Insert and the number 4 will turn speak command keys on and off.
Insert and the letter P will cycle you through the various punctuation symbol levels.  These are: none, some, most and all. The variation in levels of punctuation you hear, will depend on the punctuation level you set it to.

The commands mentioned above, are good for use in a word processing document.

We will now go into another programme called Notepad.  If it is not on the desktop, press the Windows key to bring up the file menu and use the arrow keys to navigate to this programme.  In Windows XP and Windows 7, it is usually found under the accessories  section.  In Windows 7, to get there quickly, go to the search area and type "notepad" and it should open it up for you. When you get to Notepad and have opened it, you will be presented with a file menu up the top, icons below this, and your edit area below that.  Try typing up something, and as you type (depending on  how you have set your screen reader to read) it should read out what you have typed (either letter by letter or word by word and so on).

In the main edit area in Notepad, where you are going to type your information type a few lines. (For this example, I will use part of the NZ National Anthem as a practice exercise).

God of nations at thy feet
In the bonds of love we meet
Hear our voices we entreat
God defend our free land
Guard Pacific's triple star
From the shafts of strife and war
Make her praises heard afar
God defend New Zealand

To go to the top of the page, use the Ctrl and Home keys.  (This should take you back to the top, just before the first word God and it should read out the first line). To get back down to the bottom of the page, use the Ctrl and End keys. (This should take you to the end of the word Zealand). We will jump back to the top again so we can review what we have written so far. The arrow keys will be used, along with other keys to review what you have written. Press arrow down, and the screen reader should read out the text line by line. Press arrow up, and it should read out the line above each time you press it.

To review what you have written, you can do it letter by letter or word by word. To review God defend New Zealand letter by letter, use the left and right arrow keys. This way is usually good for fixing up spelling mistakes etc. If you would like to review it word by word, press the Ctrl and right arrow keys which will allow you to review it moving to the right.  To go back the other way, use the Ctrl and left arrow keys to head back towards the beginning. To read everything that you have typed from the top, press the Insert and down arrow keys.  If you are reviewing your document (having pressed Insert and arrow down) and the phone rings, you can press the Ctrl key to stop the screen reader talking.  After you have answered the call, to continue reading, press the Insert and down arrow keys to start the screen reader again. The shift key can be used as well to stop the talking. When you press it again, it will start talking from where you stopped it (where supported by the synthesiser).

To close the programme quickly, use Alt plus the F4 key.  It may ask you to save your changes, arrow left or right to say no and it will close the programme.
Getting NVDA to read out information that you have selected

While you are in Notepad, select some of the text that you have typed up previously. While holding down your Shift key, use your arrow keys to arrow down to the information that you want to select. This will highlight the text as you arrow down / left or right. To get NVDA to read out what you have selected, press the Insert, Shift and the up arrow keys.

Saving a file (for example in a word processing document)

When you open a word processing document and begin to type, the work that you do is stored in temporary memory. If you shut down the computer without saving your work, it will be gone. There are two ways to save a file from the keyboard. Alt + F, S. Pressing Alt with the letter F displays the File pull down menu. From this menu, you can down arrow to Save and press the Enter key, or you can press the Ctrl key and the letter S.

Control + S.
This command is called a hotkey because it enables you to invoke the Save feature without opening a menu. It is the fastest way to save a file using the keyboard.

Options when the save as dialogue box appears

Save As dialogue box
The first time you save a document, the Save As dialogue box will appear on the screen. NVDA will automatically default to the file name box. This is an edit area. You can give your file any name, just make it easy to remember and relevant to the task at hand. For example, my address book, my little black book of phone numbers.

Save As type
The next box you tab to will be called save as type. This is usually a combo box and will allow you in most cases to change from one text format to another. For example RTF format to a Doc format. This will depend on the application you are using at that time. This section cannot be edited - only changed from one format to another.

Save button
When this button is pressed, the file is saved to the location you specified. Always check to see where your file is being saved to, otherwise you will end up with files all over your pc if the location changes each time.

The cancel button
If this button is pressed it will cancel the operation you are trying to do. This will make the save as dialogue box disappear.

Address (where you want to save your file)

This is where you want the file saved. For example the desktop. This can easily be changed to another location at any time - also including external hard drives and removable media. This is a split button which will allow you to change from one location to another. Use the up and down arrow keys to change it from one location to another. For example, from the desktop to your removable media (the E:\ drive). Make sure you press the Enter key (once you have located the drive) to point it towards that drive.

If you keep on tabbing around until you hear Desktop tree view, this means there is a tree view there and the treeview is starting from the Desktop. Use your left, right, up and down arrow keys to navigate around your computer. As you expand and collapse your branches etcetera these will be heard as you navigate the computer.

Once you have located the destination where you want to put the file (for example the E drive), if you press the Enter key it will put you into that drive where other files/folders may be. This is where the file may go, unless you create a folder within that drive.  Make sure if a new folder is made, you backspace it so that the "new folder" name is gone and rename it to something relevant. For example shortcuts for Windows.

For a new user of Windows, once you have typed up something (say in a word processor) and gone to save it, the easiest way for a new user is when the save as dialogue box comes up and you have entered your file name to name the file, just shift/tab a couple of times until you hear the word tree view being spoken out. It is just a matter of using your arrow keys to navigate to the place where you want to save the file.  For example the E drive.

Checking out some options under the print settings menu

Some people may not be aware of the various print options available.

Printing a document

In some cases, you may want to print a document. This may be from a text document or photos (and so on).
Most programs such as web browsers and word processors will have a print menu in them. This can usually be activated through the File menu, then arrowing down to Print, then pressing the Enter key. This will bring up different options for you to either look at or tab through. A faster way to access this option is to use Ctrl + P. This can be handy especially if you are not familiar with the location (for example when learning to use ribbons in Word).

Send to this

Send to this is the first area that NVDA will default to (in Notepad for example). It will allow you to send your document to various devices. If there is only one printer in this section, you may only have the one option. If there is more than one printer installed or programs you can print to, they can be found in this section. Just use the up and down arrow keys to make your selection.
This will also tell you if the device is ready to use or if the device is offline (which means it is usually turned off or offline).

Print to file

This is perhaps the least commonly used option. This is a check box which is usually left unticked unless you want to print a document to file. You would use this function if you did not have a printer available at the time, and wanted to print something out later on.

Preferences

This section allows you to select the orientation of the paper (for example landscape - which is left to right, or portrait - which is north to south).
It also allows you to select the size of paper you require (for example A4) as well as the print quality (for example 600 x 600).

Select printer...find printer

Under the section called select printer, there is an option to find a new printer. Simply follow the on screen prompts.

Page range

This section has 2 sections in it. The first section has radio buttons to select to print All, Selection, Pages, or Current page.
If the All radio button is selected, it will print all pages from that document.
If Selection is selected, it will print what you currently have highlighted (or selected).
If Pages is selected, it will allow you to enter a range (for example 4-8) which will print pages 4 through to 8 only. You can also print individual page numbers that are not necessarily in sequence, by doing the following. To print certain pages from a 10 page document, (for example by specifying 1,3,5,7) it will only print out those pages specified (that is 1,3,5 and 7).
If current page is selected, then it will only print the page that is currently in view in front of you.

The second section allows you to select how many copies you would like as well as having an option to collate those copies (for example if collate is selected, then the pages will print out in order 1,2,3 and then 1,2,3 again, and so on), rather than you having to sort them all out manually afterwards.

When you next tab, it will give you the option to see how many copies you want of the page. For example, if it is only a one page document, when you tab you can specify it to print the same page more than once. Just type in a number to adjust the amount of copies you want, and tab to the Print button and press Enter.

Print

This is a button. Simply press the Enter key on this and it will print out your document.
The shortcut key to print a document is the Ctrl key + P.

Hopefully you have learned something new about printing options. As with any printer and its software, there may be variations however the basics are the same.

How to change your settings in NVDA quickly

The easiest way, when first learning how to get into the settings of NVDA, is when NVDA is running, press the Insert key and the letter N. This will bring up the preferences.  From here you can right arrow to the General settings then arrow down to the rest of the NVDA settings.  Depending on which settings you would like to go into, you can use either the left, right, up or down arrow keys to get there.

To go into any of the settings press the enter key.  Once you are in one of the settings (for example the voice settings), you can use the Tab key to Tab to the different settings in there.  If one of the settings you would like to use is unchecked, press the spacebar to check that box. If you would like to change any of the other settings with sliders, use your left or right arrow keys.  This can also be done with the up and down arrow keys as well.  If you would like to change your variant (voice) from say Max to another, once you are in the variants box (which is a combo box), use the up and down arrow keys to change voices to one you like.  Once you are happy with that voice use the tab key till you get down to the ok button then press enter for the menu box to close. There are shortcut keys to get you straight to the setting you are after quickly.  If you use the Ctrl plus the Insert key plus the letter V, it will bring up the voice settings for you.  Press enter to adjust your settings and make sure you ok it at the end.  Try this with some of the other menus. (for example Ctrl plus the Insert key and the letter D will bring up the Document settings).
 
If down the track you would like to change your voice settings quickly (without going into the voice settings) try this.  If you press the Ctrl and Insert and the left or right arrows it will cycle you through the voice settings.  If you have found a setting you would like to change (for example the voice variant from Max to another), while still holding down the Ctrl and Insert key, use the up and down arrow keys to change the variants.  You can try this with some of your other voice settings as well to get the idea.

How to copy and paste information into an application, or onto a USB stick with NVDA

Sometimes when you are on a website there may be information that you want to copy.  This could be a recipe or information you are researching.  On the webpage, locate the information you want.  Press the Insert key and the F9 key to start marking the information you want.  Use the down arrow key to mark all of the text you want; then, use the Insert and F10 key to copy it to the clipboard.  If it is not a lot of information, you can press the Insert and C key to read out the clipboard (to confirm what you have copied).

Once you have found some information online that you wish to copy and paste, you will need another programme for the information to be copied into. You can use Notepad for this. To minimize the window you are looking at, use the Windows and M key.  This will minimize your browser to the taskbar. Now locate Notepad on your computer and open it upTo paste the information  into Notepad, use the Ctrl and V keys. If done correctly, you should have a copy of your recipe (or whatever information you copied) there now in front of you. This can also be done by locating the same information and whilst holding down the shift and Ctrl keys, arrowing right to the end of the sentence, then arrowing down to highlight all of the information you want. Next, press the Ctrl key and the letter C to copy it to the clipboard, then paste it into that programme with Ctrl and the letter V.  This can be done to other word processing applications as well. Finally, save what you have copied using either Ctrl and S, or by pressing Alt (to access the menus) and arrowing down to Save.  It will ask you where to save it to. Click on browse and change it from wherever it is pointing to, to the desktop. This will make it easier to find for the next step. You could try this with a paragraph off this page by pasting it into your word processing application. 

At a later date, you may want to copy the information to a USB stick.  You could use the copy and paste part of Windows to do this. Locate the file you have saved to the desktop.  Make sure it is highlighted when NVDA speaks the filename that you have saved it as.  Pressing Ctrl and the letter C should copy it to the clipboard. Now plug in your USB stick. An autoplay dialogue should come up.  When it does, press the letter O to open the folder, then press enter.  You should now be able to see what files are on the USB stick.  To paste it, use the Ctrl and V keys.  If you can't see it there, it hasn't been copied properly, so you would repeat the process until it does. The Insert and F9 keys are used to mark the text you want, and the Insert and F10 keys are used to copy it to the clipboard so it can be pasted.

Switching between applications that are open on your computer

If you have followed the above steps, and assuming that you have not closed any of those applications, you may have three applications open at the same time.  These may be your browser (from which you have copied your information), Notepad (or whatever word processing application you have pasted that information into) and your USB stickIf they are all still open, you can go between the three of them by doing the following. Press the Alt key, then quickly hit the Tab key.  This should cycle between two applications that you have minimized.  So, if you just do it the once, it should go between the browser and another application that is open.  To check which application it is, press Insert and the letter T to hear the title.  If you would like to go between the three applications, just hold down the Alt key and press the Tab key a couple of times. Each time you hit the Tab key, it will cycle through the three applications. The Alt and Tab keys are another Windows command.

How do I cut, copy, paste, or delete text without using a mouse?

There are two ways to cut, copy, paste or delete information. One is pressing Alt and E to bring up the edit menu and then choose the option you would like. The other way is using the shortcut key commands. In the exercise below, we will use Notepad to highlight, cut, copy, paste and delete text.

Using the edit menu:
  1. Open Notepad.
  2. Type up a few lines of text.
  3. Do one (or all) of the following:
• To select text so you can cut or copy it to another location, select the text using the Shift key and your arrow keys. Hold the Shift        key down at the beginning of the text that you want to move, and arrow across or down to select the rest of the text that you want.
• To cut text so you can move it to another location, select the text (as per the instructions above), press Alt + E to bring up the edit           menu, and then arrow down to cut, and press enter.
• To copy text so you can paste it in another location, select the text (as per the instructions above), press Alt + E to bring up the edit        menu, and then arrow down to copy, and press enter.
• To paste text that you have cut or copied, click the location where you want to paste the text, press Alt + E to bring up the edit menu,    and then arrow down to paste.
• To delete text, select the text you want to delete, press Alt + E to bring up the edit menu, and then arrow down to delete.
• To undo your last action, press Alt + E to bring up the edit menu, and then arrow down to undo.

Alternatively, the shortcut key commands are as follows:
Hopefully now you have tried both ways of cutting, copying, pasting, deleting and undoing text. Use whichever way you remember best. Also, the copy, cut, paste and delete functions can be used for files and folders as well.

Following the focused area with NVDA

If you are a software developer or a web developer, and this is your first time using a screen reader (such as NVDA), learning how a screen reader reads a webpage (or where it is focused in a programme) can be very different to what you are used to. It usually baffles a sighted developer. Sighted developers will usually not like a synthetic voice either, let alone be able to drive NVDA as a sight impaired person would.

There are features that may help you to see where the NVDA screen reader is focused at any given time. You could try either one of the following and see which one works for you. They might even help other sighted people (such as an adaptive technology instructor) to locate which part of a screen is being read out at that particular point in time.

Focus Highlight addon (by Takuya Nishimoto)

This addon enables partially sighted users, sighted educators, or developers to track the location of the NVDA navigator object and the focused object/control by highlighting it with a coloured rectangle. Both green and red are used. The meanings are as follows:
Green jagged line = navigator object;
Red thin rectangle = focused object/control;
Red thick rectangle = the overlapping of the navigator object and focused object.

If you would like to disable this addon, simply uninstall the Focus Highlight addon from the Manage Addons section in NVDA.
You can obtain a copy of the addon from the NVDA addons page found at http://addons.nvda-project.org/  Please note: If this is your first time installing an addon, please read the information at the top of the NVDA addons page before attempting to install an addon.

Control Usage Assistant addon (by Joseph Lee)

If you are a new user to the NVDA screen reader and don't know how to interact with different elements such as buttons, edit areas, links and so on, this addon should be of use to you. New users of NVDA (learning to interact with the screen reader for the first time) can use this addon to find out how to interact with the focused control. Press NVDA + H to obtain a short help message on interacting with the focused control, such as checkboxes, edit fields and so on.
To obtain a copy of the addon please go to http://addons.nvda-project.org/

NVDA speech viewer

The NVDA speech viewer  (when enabled) is a box which appears on your screen as a resizeable/moveable window. It displays a list of actions in text format as you navigate your computer. Wherever the highlighted area is being spoken out, this information will be displayed in the  list. This has been created for those developers who wish to have a visual cue rather than an audio cue. Both the visual and audio cue can be used at the same time. If you wish to turn off the audible cues (and prefer to only see the list of actions) while NVDA is running use the Insert key + the letter S and toggle it until you hear speech mode off. The other two options under Insert + S are speech mode beeps and speech mode talk. To get NVDA to speak again, simply continue to toggle it until you hear speech mode talk.

To enable the speech viewer window while NVDA is running, press the Insert key and the letter N... (when the preferences menu comes up) arrow down to tools... arrow right... then arrow down to speech viewer. Press Enter and the speech viewer window should be enabled. To disable it, just repeat the same process and the window will disappear.

Exploring your Windows operating system, programmes and devices using Windows Explorer

Windows Explorer is used to navigate the file structures of your operating system. This is where you can see the different drives on your computer for example the C:\ drive, DVD drive or any removable media and so on. This will also include programmes that you have on your computer. These will be in folders with files inside of them.

How to tell the difference between a 32 bit machine and a 64 bit machine in Windows

Most people are unaware of how many bit their operating system is (for example whether it is a Windows 32 bit or 64 bit system). The easiest way to find out which one you have is to do the following... To quickly go into Windows Explorer on your computer (where you can view the contents of your operating system), press the Windows key and the letter E. This will take you directly into Windows Explorer. Next, press the letter P. If there is only one folder called programme files, the computer has a 32 bit operating system. If you then press the letter P again (and there is another folder called programme files x86), then it will be a 64 bit operating system. This is for the Windows operating system only. Where it refers to program files X86 (this is a 32 bit path for 32 bit programmes on a 64 bit computer). If a 64 bit programme is installed, it will then put it in the other folder called programme files. If your computer has both the programme files folder as well as the programme files x86 folder, then it is a 64 bit system.

EXERCISE
Check to see if NVDA is a 32 bit or 64 bit program, using the instructions in the paragraph above. You will need to go into both folders to see which one NVDA is in.

Accessing Windows Explorer via the Start button

To go into Windows explorer via the start button, you will need to focus NVDA on the start button first. Next, you will need to route the mouse to the start button. Use the Insert key + the divide key (found above the number 8 on the numeric keypad) at the same time to do this. Once the mouse cursor has been routed to the start button, you will need to right click the mouse with NVDA. Use the multiply key to do this. This is found on the numeric keypad as well (above the number 9).

Arrow up or down to open Windows Explorer and press the Enter key. The next screen that comes up will give you the following options:

Items view list

When Windows Explorer is opened for the first time, it will default to the Items view list.  This will be spoken out by NVDA. To quickly get to the tree view, use the shift/tab keys once, and this will put you into the name - tree view section which is a lot easier to use if this is your first time using Windows Explorer.

This may give you a list of folders, for example documents, music, pictures and so on. If you press the Enter key to go into one of these folders (or any of the folders on your operating system) in this view, you can also use the left arrow key along with the Alt key to go back a folder. If you want to go back into the folder you were in, you can either press the Enter key again or use the Alt key along with the right arrow key to do this.

What you hear will depend on the section you are in. This is referred to as the address. For example, if the address says documents, then the item view list will be the list of items within the documents section. As another example, if the address says desktop, then it will show the items that appear on your desktop.

When you tab next, it will take you to the address section. This is a split button and will also say desktop. This means the library section is referring to the desktop in that section. You can use the left and right arrow keys to go between those 2 sections.

The next time you Tab it will take you to a search section. This is just a matter of putting in what you want to look for and it will locate it for you within that section. You should hear the words "search box" being spoken.

When you tab again the next section it lands you on is the command module section. If the up and down arrow keys are used on this section, it will bring up a context menu that may allow you to do the following (copy, cut, paste and so on). This applies if it is highlighted on a folder or file.

Tree view list

The next time you tab, it will land you on a tree view. This means you will be able to use the up, down, left and right arrow keys to navigate the branches in that section. Depending on how many branches there are on that tree view - it may say one of 20. This means there are 20 branches on that tree.

You will need to keep on opening branches until you find what you are after. Sometimes the Enter key and Tab key may be used when the branch can't be opened any more. In this case there are usually files in them.

If this is your first time navigating your computer, this is the easiest way to do it. You can also use the first letter of the programmes folder name and/or file to get to the destination much quicker.

Pressing the Tab key again will take you back to the items view list.

Changing location within Windows Explorer and what to look out for in the two views

When the location is changed in the address section (with the up and down arrow keys) and the Enter key is used, this will change what you can see in the following 2 areas (for example name/tree view section and the items view list section).
For example, if the address area is changed to computer split button and the Enter key is pushed, it will change in the 2 areas mentioned. It should change the tree view to computer, and in the items view list you should be able to see the drives on your computer.  For example C:\, D:\ and so on. To go into any of these folders, just press the Enter key and it will take you inside the drive to see other folders/files on that computer, USB stick or removable drive etcetera.

Accessing Windows Explorer via the Windows shortcut

The other way to quickly go into Windows Explorer while on the desktop, is to press the Windows key + the letter E together. This will bring up the Windows Explorer screen.

When this screen comes up it will say computer. This may vary on other operating systems. You can use the left, right, up, or down arrow keys to navigate this area. Here it will give you the options to see other drives etcetera on your computer. For example C:\, D:\ and so on. If you press the Enter key on the C:\ drive it will take you into that drive. When this is done, the next screen that comes up will be the structure of the operating system. This will consist of folders and files. Each folder may contain other files or subfolders within it.  One of the files in those folders, usually an exe file will be linked to a shortcut (either on your desktop or under your programmes menu). For example NVDA.exe will be linked to a shortcut called NVDA on the desktop.

When this screen is opened, NVDA will default to the Items View list. Pressing any letter while in this area will quickly move you to any folders starting with that letter. For example the letter P for programmes. Each time you press the letter P it will take you to another folder starting with the letter P. This is the same idea when you are inside of a folder and there are a lot of files there. Pressing a letter will take you to all of the files starting with the letter you pushed. For example the letter N.

When the Enter key is used on a folder (for example programme files in the operating system under Windows Explorer), it will show up a list of folders that are under that section on your computer. Pressing the Enter key will show you a list of folders/programmes under that section. For example Mozilla Firefox, Mozilla Thunderbird and so on. Each time you go into a folder, the Enter key will be used to go inside that folder.

What is the difference between List view and Details view in Windows Explorer?

The difference between the 2 views (list view and details view) is as follows:

Changing your view in Windows Explorer

If you are not quite sure how to navigate the computer to see what directory/folders are there, it would be a good idea to change your view to make it easier to navigate with.  If you use either the list view or the details view, all you will need to do is mostly use your arrow keys to navigate.

To change your view, press the Alt key to get to the file menu, arrow right to the View menu, arrow down to the list view or details view, then press Enter.  This should tick the list view or details view. Try both the list view and the details view to see what is best for you to use.

Setting your favourite view for all folders while in Windows Explorer

Once you have decided on your favourite view, you can save it permanently by going to the tools menu, arrowing down to the folder options menu, then pressing enter to open it up.  There should be some tabs there and you need to go to the view tab to change/save your setting permanently for all folders. Once you have saved your folder options, you should be taken back to Windows Explorer. If you are not sure where you have been placed (when opening the screen), press the shift/tab key to hear what it says.

Creating a new folder while in Windows Explorer

It may be a good idea while in tree view mode, to make a directory/folder called NVDA.  Here, at a later date, we can drop a copy of NVDA portable into it. To do this, locate the C: drive (this should be found at the top of the tree). Once you are there, press the Alt key to bring up the file menu, arrow down to new, right arrow to folder/directory, then press enter.
It will make up a new folder for you.  Locate the folder you have just made, and once found, press the F2 key to rename that folder to NVDA. Press enter and now the folder should be called NVDA.  Then, it's a matter of getting the portable version of NVDA and unzipping the contents into that folder/directory.  Directions can be found on my NVDA screen reader page.

While you are in tree view, try pushing the letter P and see what it does.  If there are any folders/directories starting with the letter P, it will take you straight to them.  Press the letter P again and then it should take you to the next one starting with the letter P. Now try another letter and see what it does.  This is useful for quickly finding folders/directories/files that you are after.  If you are still on the C: drive in tree view, try pressing the letter N until you get back to the NVDA folder. 

Copying and pasting files using Windows Explorer

For an exercise, you could look for the Tweaky voice and copy it to the desktop.  To give you a hand in finding the Tweaky voice, follow the path that will get you there. For Windows 7 users using an installer version of NVDA, it is as follows:
Computer/Local Disk (C:)/Program Files (X86)/NVDA/synth Drivers/espeak-data/voices/!v/Tweaky
If you are using Windows XP, then this may be found under C:/Program Files/NVDA/synth Drivers/espeak-data/voices/!v/Tweaky
Once you open the last folder (which is the !v folder), you will have to press enter, then Tab to get into where the voices are. Once you have located Tweaky, press Ctrl + C (to copy the file), and then Windows + M to minimise the window. Next, press the Windows + D key (to take you to the desktop), and then press Ctrl + V to paste the file there. This can be opened up with Notepad at a later date for you to look at. If you decide down the track that you want to make your own voice/variant, this will give you a basic guide of how to do it.

Closing Windows Explorer

To close all open Windows, press Alt+Tab until it reads out the first Window, and then use Alt+F4 to close it. Keep doing this until all Windows are closed.

Finding out more information about your computer

Your arrow keys, Tab key and Shift + Tab key combinations will be used in this section. There is a section (under the System Tools section) in Windows which gives you more information about your computer system. This section will cover what type of operating system you have, how much ram is present on your computer and so on.

On a Windows seven computer it can be accessed by doing the following... Press the Windows key, (and when the Start menu comes up) go to All Programmes, then Accessories, then System Tools. Locate the System Information menu, then press the Enter key. The next screen will put you into a tree view. NVDA will go to the top of the tree (called System Summary). You can arrow up and down the tree (with the up arrow and down arrow keys) if you want to look at other things in this section. If you do look around on the tree, go back to System Summary. This should be spoken. Next, press the Tab key. The next section will let you arrow up and down to see what kind of specifications you have on your computer. (For example operating system, version and so on). To quickly get to this section, simply type in the search box on the Windows start menu the following: system, this should hopefully be the first result in the list. If not,  locate the System Information result and press the Enter key. This will take you into the System Information section in Windows.
Now you can start looking up things about your computer.

Recommended housekeeping (maintenance) for Windows

The following sections cover basic housekeeping practices that will need to be done from time to time, to keep your Windows computer running nicely for you!

How to use Windows Defender

Most people are unaware that Windows Defender comes with their operating system. It was introduced into the Vista operating system and thereafter (for example Windows 7 and 8). Windows Defender can be found under the Control Panel section in Windows.

Once located, you can send a shortcut to your Desktop. You will need to route the mouse to this shortcut. Use the Insert key and the divide key on the numeric keypad to do this. Once the mouse has been routed to the Windows Defender shortcut, you will need to right click the mouse so a context menu comes up. This is done with the multiply key on the numeric keypad (that is the * key). You will then need to arrow down to "create shortcut menu" and press the Enter key. This will put a shortcut called Windows Defender on your desktop. This way (by having a shortcut on your desktop) it will make it a lot easier to scan for viruses etcetera on your computer.

Windows Defender may have to be turned on so you will need to enable it when you first go into the Windows Defender screen (once the shortcut has been located). When Windows defender has been enabled (in most cases) you will be using the Tab key to go between sections. Also, the arrow keys will be used to go between sections of each page. You may have to experiment with navigating around the different screens available to you there. The home button will get you back to the main page.

While you are there, check out all of the different sections of Windows Defender and customize it to your liking. To listen to an audio tutorial on the basics of using this programme (called navigating windows defender basics) please go to https://www.dropbox.com/s/7z8luc8395rcg3y/navigating%20windows%20defender%20basics.MP3?dl=0

How to clean up your computer with Windows Disk Cleanup utility

It is a good idea to have a little bit of a clean up now and again on a computer. Windows provides its own disk clean up utility. It is worth going through it now and again to see what temp files and so on can be removed from your computer (that are just sitting there and taking up space).  The disk clean up utility can be found under the accessories/system tools section in Windows. To locate this quickly, you may also enter the words disk cleanup in the search box under the Start menu in Windows 7.  The tab key and arrow keys will be used in this programme to move around it. To listen to the audio tutorial please go to https://www.dropbox.com/s/hop0esvr92jvj3w/how%20to%20clean%20up%20your%20computer%20with%20windows%20disk%20cleanup%20utility.MP3?dl=0

How to defragment your hard drive and improve your computers performance

Fragmentation (or the separation of files) can occur over a period of time making your hard drive do extra work, that in turn can slow your computer down. Removable storage devices such as USB drives can also become fragmented. Disk Defragmenter rearranges the fragmented data making your disks and drives work more efficiently. Disk Defragmenter (also commonly referred to as defrag) can be scheduled for action automatically, or done manually.

You may need to tab or arrow around the screen to get to some of the different options.

To get to disk defragmenter, system tools can be accessed via the all programmes menu (for example all programmes, accessories, system tools, disk defragmenter). This is the same area in which you can find other tools such as disk cleanup and system information.
Alternatively you can type into the search box on the startup menu the name of the programme you want (or at least the first few letters of the programme). This way it may take you straight to the programme itself or give you some alternatives that match the results.

To listen to the audio tutorial please go to https://www.dropbox.com/s/vvmtnoatka11pcn/how%20to%20defragment%20your%20hard%20drive%20and%20improve%20your%20computers%20performance.MP3?dl=0

How to remove a programme from your computer

There are times when you have downloaded programmes off the internet only to find they don't work with your screen reader, or there are programmes on your computer that you don't use any more. If these programmes are of no use any more, you might as well remove them (so you can free up more disk space on your computer).

To remove a programme from your computer, you will need to go to the control panel. Next, you will need to locate a section called programmes and features. Press the Enter key to open it. You will need to let the list populate with all of the programmes on your computer. Next, you will need to locate the programme you want to uninstall from your computer (for example Google chrome). You can quickly jump down to this programme you want to uninstall by pressing the letter G. Keep doing this until you have located the Google chrome programme or whichever programme you want to uninstall. If this is the case then another letter will be used (for example press O for Open Office or whatever the programme name begins with). Next, route your mouse to the programme you want to uninstall from the list. To do this use the Insert key and the divide key which can be found on the numeric keypad. You should hear the name of the programme being spoken out to you. Next, you will have to right click the mouse. To simulate this with NVDA you use the multiply key on the numeric keypad (this is the * above the number 9). A context menu will come up, then arrow down to uninstall and press the Enter key  and simply follow the directions until it is uninstalled.

Sometimes programmes will leave folders/settings behind on your computer. To remove these from your computer as well, locate your computer icon on your desktop and press the Enter key. It will give you a selection of the drives on your computer. Locate the C:\ drive and press the Enter key again. When the next screen comes up, press the letter P to either jump down to programme files if you are using a 32 bit machine, or programme files x86 if you are using a 64 bit machine. Locate the folder name if any (for example Google chrome) then delete it from your computer. Once done, close this screen with the Alt + F4 keys.

You can also check under the following area as well. Press the Windows key and the letter R to bring up the Windows Run dialog box, or alternatively you can  press the Windows key and enter the following into the search box when it comes up instead to get the same results... Type in the following %appdata% Next, press the Enter key.  It will give you a list of folders and their settings in this section. Locate the folder (if it is there) and delete it.  If none can be found, then you are right to go. Close this screen with the Alt key and the F4 key. This is a Windows command.

To listen to the audio tutorial please go to https://www.dropbox.com/s/t1pmtnmct636o3v/how%20to%20remove%20a%20programme%20from%20your%20computer.MP3?dl=0






HOME